general business data bank

general business data bank

____ 109. Simply repeating
a message causes it to be perceived as more true. This finding is known as the
a. validity effect
b. contrast effect
c. exposure effect
d. reiteration effect

____ 110. Travis saw a television advertisement in which a new long-distance
telephone service provider showed a vignette of pleasant family scenes while
some relaxing music played in the background. Later, when Travis is asked about
this particular long-distance service provider, he has a positive attitude
toward their service, even though he actually uses a different long-distance
service. Travis’s attitude appears to have developed through the process of
a. cognitive dissonance
b. classical conditioning
c. observational learning
d. operant conditioning

____ 111. Scott spent a great deal of time and money on becoming a member of a
certain club, yet later discovered that the members of the club were boring.
According to dissonance theory, Scott would MOST likely
a. continue to extol the virtues of the club to his friends
b. now “bad mouth” the club to his friends
c. engage in denial and disengagement as part of his defensive attribution
d. try to modify the behavior of the current club members

____ 112. Judd notices that every time he is in a bookstore he spends more time
browsing through the new books in the non-fiction section than looking at the
latest novels and best sellers. Consequently, Judd decides he must really
prefer non-fiction books. In this example, Judd has formed his attitude in the
manner suggested by
a. cognitive dissonance theory
b. observational learning theory
c. the fundamental attribution error
d. self-perception theory

____ 113. Julio had planned to buy a national brand computer when one of his
friends suggested that he look into the computers available through a local
“no-name” outlet store. Julio carefully reviewed the relevant reports
about the various computer components as well as the statistics on service
reliability, and decided his friend was correct. Julio bought his computer from
the local “no-name” outlet store. In this case, Julio reached his
decision using
a. the central route to persuasion
b. the peripheral route to persuasion
c. the cognitive dissonance model of persuasion
d. a self-serving route to persuasion

____ 114. In Asch’s studies, __________ were found to be the key determinants of
a. group size and the subjects’ intelligence
b. the group leader’s personality and group unanimity
c. task difficulty and group size
d. group size and group unanimity

____ 115. In Milgram’s (1963) study, what percentage of the subjects fully
obeyed the experimenter?
a. 5 percent
b. 35 percent
c. 65 percent
d. 95 percent

____ 116. Milgram found that subjects’ obedience declined dramatically when
a. an innocent stranger was harmed by the subjects’ actions
b. group size was increased beyond seven members
c. another “teacher” defied the experimenter’s order
d. the study was conducted in a run-down, dilapidated building

____ 117. Frasier felt his life was hopeless and climbed out onto a bridge
deck, planning to commit suicide. Initially, about 40 people stood and pointed
at him as he clung to the railing on the bridge, but after 30 minutes most of
the crowd had dispersed. When only three people remained, one of the onlookers
decided to call for help. The best explanation for why Frasier received help
when the crowd was small, rather than when it was large, is that
a. diffusion of responsibility is less likely to occur in a small group
b. group polarization is less likely to occur in small groups
c. small groups tend to be less cohesive than larger groups
d. cognitive dissonance decreases as the size of a group is decreased

____ 118. When Jerry thought he was the only person who was assigned the job of
contacting alumni for a 15-year reunion, he spent several hours on the phone
each evening trying to reach members of his graduating class. When he learned
that eight other people were also working on contacting the alumni, he spent
only 30 minutes each night making phone calls. The process that would best
explain the decrease in Jerry’s effort when he learned that he was working as
part of a larger group, is
a. social interference
b. social loafing
c. the bystander effect
d. social dissonance

____ 119. When Stoner (1961) compared the average decision of a group’s
individual members against their group decision generated through group
discussion, he found that
a. group members ignored the discussion and maintained their original decision
b. individuals arrived at riskier decisions than groups
c. groups arrived at riskier decisions than individuals
d. the longer the discussion continued, the riskier the group’s decisions

____ 120. Groupthink is more likely when the group
a. does not have a designated leader
b. must justify their decision to other groups in the same organization
c. is under pressure to make a major decision
d. experiences any of these things

____ 121. Observers tend to favor __________ attributions about the success of
males; observers tend to favor __________ attributions about the success of
a. internal; external
b. internal; internal
c. external; internal
d. external; external

____ 122. When a member of an ethnic minority is successful, people are least
likely to attribute that success to
a. sheer effort
b. ability or intelligence
c. luck or opportunity
d. ease of the task

____ 123. Which of the following social influence techniques involves getting
people to agree to a small request to increase the chances that they will agree
to a larger request later?
a. lowball technique
b. highball technique
c. reciprocity norm
d. foot-in-the-door technique

____ 124. Groups seeking donations routinely send address labels and other
small gifts with their pleas. This approach illustrates which of the following
social influence techniques?
a. lowball technique
b. highball technique
c. foot-in-the-door technique
d. reciprocity norm

____ 125. The studies by Asch and by Milgram indicate that both conformity to
group pressure and obedience to commands are reduced by
a. group cohesiveness
b. group polarization
c. the presence of a dissenter
d. centralized communication

general business data bank
general business data bank