7.3 The Expression of Biological Information

7.3 The Expression of Biological Information

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Information and Its Expression in the Cell

7.3 The
Expression of Biological Information
A Context for Understanding Gene Expression
When the organism expresses a set of genes, the result is the
characteristics of that
organism. These
characteristics are called its ____________.
The term “transcription” means the process of reading a base
sequence in ____________ to
generate a complementary base sequence in ____________.
Why is the word “translation” used for protein production?
Information from DNA is transcribed into mRNA, which is then
transported to ribosomes.
This phrase describes the role of ____________ in ____________
expression.
Describe 2 major problems that transcription solves for the
cell.

Transcription: Using Some Genes Now and Some Not at All
In the process of transcription, the base sequence in the
molecule ____________ is read by
the molecule ____________, an enzyme that makes RNA
molecules.
Which RNA product helps the ribosome to recognize how and where
to begin working?
Following the transcription event, list 4 separate parts of the
overall processing of mRNA
in the cell’s nucleus.
In the cell nucleus, a pre-mRNA has its introns removed by
____________ enzymes.

Translation: Making Proteins
In the translation process, tRNA molecules are also called
“adapter” molecules. Why?
What is their function?
There are more than four kinds of amino acids in
proteins. Each
kind of amino acid must
be coded for in mRNA. Thus, a short sequence
of mRNA bases called a(n) ____________
is used to code for each amino acid in the translation
process.
What is a general name for a three-dimensional, folded molecule
shaped like an “L,” with
an anticodon at one end and an amino acid attachment site at
the other end?
Transferring correct amino acids to the ribosome during
elongation is a good description of
the role of ____________ in the cell cytoplasm.
What is the role of tRNA synthetase in the cell’s
cytoplasm?
Peptide bonds are formed during the ____________ stage of
translation.
The role of the ribosome or its subunits: creating a channel
for ____________ to enter and
exit.
The role of the ribosome or its subunits: helping tRNA
____________-codons to bind to
mRNA ____________.
The role of the ribosome or its subunits: comparing
____________ anti-codons against
corresponding ____________ codons.
The role of the ribosome or its subunits: binding ____________
____________ together to
form a polypeptide chain.
This sequence best represents the overall flow of ____________
in a cell: transcription,
pre-mRNA processing, translation, protein processing,
export
List all of the organelles involved in the flow of information
from archival DNA to its
expression as a resulting glycoprotein.
In order to elongate mRNA, RNA polymerase must unwind and open
double-stranded
____________.
In order to elongate mRNA, RNA polymerase must sense correct
____________ and
incorporate them into the new RNA strand.
In order to elongate mRNA, RNA polymerase must dislodge the
____________ strand
from its temporary pairing with DNA.

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7.3 The Expression of Biological Information